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Essay Writing の思考プロセス Introduction


”Essay Writing の思考プロセス” は、2018年4月第1週から連載が始まる従来の”英文解釈の思考プロセス” に続く新シリーズです。Essay の Topic は英検、国連英検、及び iBT Independent Essay Writing の過去問を使用します。今回は第1回として Introduction となります。

1.Essay Structure

Introduction (導入部) >

T  h  e  s  i  s    S  t  a  t  e  m  e  n  t

Body (Essay 本体) >

First Paragraph = Main Idea 1

T  o  p  i  c    S  e  n  t  e  n  c  e

S  u  p  p  o  r  t  i  n  g   D  e  t  a  i  l  s

Linking Sentence


Second Paragraph = Main Idea 2

T  o  p  i  c   S  e  n  t  e  n  c  e

S  u  p  p  o  r  t  i  n  g   D  e  t  a  i  l  s


Linking Sentence


Third Paragraph = Main Idea 3

T  o  p  i  c   S  e  n  t  e  n  c  e

S  u  p  p  o  r  t  i  n  g   D  e  t  a  i  l  s

Conclusion   (結論) >

T  h  e  s  i  s   S  t  a  t  e  m  e  n  t


S  u  m  m  a  r  y    of    M  a  i  n   I  d  e  a  s


Thesis Statement    ((argument ) 主張、主題、メッセージ)

It tells the reader exactly what your opinion is.

Topic sentence

It needs one reason why your thesis statement is true and it tells the reader what the paragraph is about.
トピックセンテンスには何故あなたの主張が真実であるのかについて一つの理由が必要であり、又、このパラグラフの内容(Main Idea)が何であるのかを読者に伝えます。

Supporting Details

They give specific details and examples related to the topic sentence.
これらのセンテンスは、トピックセンテンスの内容を裏付ける為に、トピック(Main Idea)と関連性のある具体的な説明や事例を提供します。

2.Evaluation Criteria

1)Effective treatment of the topic  問いに効果的に答えているか

2)Organization and developmwnt with explanations, and/or details  具体的事例を交えた構成、展開が見られるか

3)Unity, progression and coherence  論理的整合性、一貫性が維持されているか

4)Syntactic and dictional variety, appropriate vocabulary and usage  文章構造、語彙の多様性、適切な語法、表現

5)Errors in structure and usage, and their influence on clarity  文法、語法上の誤りの程度

3.Essay Writing Writing のポイント




上記”2”の Evaluation Criteria の筆頭に上がっているのが “Effctive treatmant of the topic” です。


問いに対する自らの立場を明確にし(Theis statement)、その主張(Argument)を裏付ける説得的な根拠(Main idea)

を整理することです。この作業が Effctive treatmant of the topic に他なりません。この段階では”日本語”で考えることが効率的です。換言すると、答案構成時にはそれらをどの様に




問い(Topic) である、Do mulitinational corporations play positive role in today’s world?

に、ここでは ”Yes” の立場を選択しました。





ここまでの答案構成が完成すると、後はそれらの根拠を Body の部分の各パラグラフの Main idea として

Topic sentence に置き換えるだけです。



a).   Topic  

 Do multinational corporations play a positive role in today’s world? 


b). Sample


     In my opinion, multinational corporations have had a positive effect on today’s world since they benefit consumers, help nations and governments in developing countries, and promote world peace. 


     To begin with, being multinational, global corporations have benefitted consumers worldwide by taking advantage of global supply chains.  Thanks to the establishment of global supply chains, multinational corporations have become able to offer stylish and state-of-the-art products, such as smart phones or electric cars, at affordable prices.  When the latest technologies, developed in America, Europe, or Japan, are combined with cheaper labor costs in developing countries, prices of products could be lower and lower, which benefits consumers globally. 


     In addition, multinational corporations have contributed both to nations and governments in developing countries.  As global supply chains extend, they have created millions of jobs, especially in manufacturing sector, in many developing countries.  As a result, governments in those countries can enjoy tax revenue growth not only from global corporations but also from those who are employed by them.  With tax revenues growing, implementation of various welfare programs, from building infrastructures to health care, would be possible. 


Finally, multinational corporations are promoting world peace, though indirectly, in that they have cultivated cultural diversity and respect for human rights.  As they become aware of corporate social responsibility in recent decades, they have improved many aspects of corporate cultures.  For instance, global corporations now offer equal opportunities for both men and women regardless of their nationality and religion.  This makes it possible for all the employees throughout the world to develop mutual understanding, which has to be the bedrock for world peace. 


     In conclusion, it is true that global corporations were once criticized for focusing solely on profit.  However, in my opinion, because of the three reasons I mentioned above, multinational corporations play positive role in today’s world.  


To be continued.