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essay writing の思考プロセス 第6回


今回の Topic は、英検1級2014年第3回の問題です。


1. Topic   


  Has urbanization had a positive effect on Japanese society? 


Body の部分を構成する3つの Paragraph の Main Idea は、

第1 Paragraph 近年における都市部への過度の人口流入は、都市部と農村部の双方の財政に悪影響を与えてきた

第2 Paragraph 農村部の衰退は、古来より育まれてきた日本文化の多様性の維持を困難にする

第3 Paragraph 都市化といっても、日本の場合東京への一極集中であり、地方都市は”東京化”し、個性を失いつつある


2. Sample


     In my opinion, urbanization has had a negative effect on Japanese society in that our society has lost wide variety of cultures due to the demographic shift in which large amount of population has moved from rural areas to urban areas. 


     To begin with, recent demographic shift resulting from urbanization has had negative impact both on urban areas and rural areas in Japan.  The growing number of population in urban areas has made it difficult for city officials to provide each community with adequate public services.  At the same time, due to the rapid decrease in population, local governments in rural areas have difficulty securing enough tax revenues so that they can implement and enhance social welfare programs. 


 In addition, as most rural areas in Japan have gradually declined, so have the rich tapestry of Japanese culture.  It is said that before Meiji Period began, around eighty percent of Japan’s population were farmers who lived in rural areas.   With over a thousand years of long history, people in rural regions had developed wide variety of cultures, including traditional performing arts, coexistence with nature, and strong human relations in each community.  But thanks to urbanization, those cultures have lost its majority of successors. 


     Finally, small and midsized cities in Japan have also begun to lose their inherited characteristics, having been heavily influenced by the largest city in Japan, Tokyo.  As information and knowledge about economic and cultural values has become concentrated in Tokyo, those cities in Japan have no choice but to follow the way Tokyo goes.  This means that almost all parts of Japan have to be more or less “little Tokyo”.  It seems to me, for instance, young people have a strong preference for speaking Tokyo dialect rather than local dialects.  Since dialects are tightly associated with cultures, cultural varieties in urban areas grow weaker and weaker. 


     It is true that urbanization in Japan has played a crucial role in achieving economic development.  However, I have to say that urbanization hasn’t had positive effect in Japanese society as a whole because of the three reasons I mentioned above.  


To be continued.